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Kolkata Metro

The Kolkata Metro or Calcutta Metro (Bengali: কলকাতা মেট্রো Kolkata Metro) is the Underground Mass Rapid Transit Urban Railway network in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. It was the first underground railway to be built in India, with the first operations commencing in October, 1984 and the full stretch that was initially planned being operational by February, 1995. It is run by the Indian Railways and is considered to have the status of a zonal railway. The New Delhi Metro, which opened in 2002, is the second such urban metro rail network in India. However, being the country's first, and a completely indigenous process, the construction of the Kolkata Metro was more of a trial-and-error affair, in contrast to the Delhi Metro, which has seen the involvement of numerous international consultants. As a result, it took nearly 23 years to completely construct a 17 km underground railway.

The line runs from Dum Dum in the north and continues south through Park Street, Esplanade in the heart of the city till the southern end to Garia, the station bearing the name Kavi Nazrul.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Features
o 2.1 Technical Features
o 2.2 Reservation for women
o 2.3 Salient features
o 2.4 Method of construction
o 2.5 Rolling Stock
* 3 Routes
o 3.1 North South Corridor
o 3.2 Alignment & Interchanges
o 3.3 Extension of North South Corridor
* 4 Fare Structure
o 4.1 Tickets
o 4.2 Automatic Fare Collection
* 5 East - West Metro
o 5.1 Proposed Route
* 6 Future Projects & Plans
* 7 See also
* 8 External links
* 9 References

[edit] History

Before independence, there was a plan by the British to construct underground railway in Kolkata. After independence, the burgeoning transport problem of Kolkata drew the attention of the city planners, the State Government and also the Government of India. It was soon realised that something had to be done and done quickly to cope with the situation. Bidhan Chandra Roy, at that time the Chief Minister of West Bengal, conceived the idea in 1949 of building an underground railway for Kolkata to solve the problems to some extent. A survey was done by a team of French experts without any concrete results. Efforts to solve the problem by augmenting the existing fleet of public transport vehicles barely touched the fringe of the problem as the roads account for only 4.2% of the surface area in Calcutta, compared to 25% in Delhi and even 30% in other cities.[1]

With a view to finding an alternative solution, the Metropolitan Transport Project (Rlys) (i.e., Railways) was set up in 1969. After detailed studies, the MTP (Rlys) came to the conclusion that there was no other alternative but to construct a Mass Rapid Transit System. The MTP (Rlys) had prepared a Master Plan in 1971 envisaging construction of five rapid-transit lines for the city of Kolkata, totalling a route length of 97.5 km. Of these, the highest priority was given to the busy North-South axis between Dum Dum and Mahanayak Uttam Kumar (Tollygunge) over a length of 16.45 km, and the work on this project was sanctioned on June 1, 1972. The foundation stone of the project was laid by Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, on December 29, 1972, and the construction work started in 1973.

At first, 5 lines were planned, but finally 3 selected. Those were -

* Dum Dum - Kavi Nazrul(Garia)
* Bidhannagar (Salt Lake Sector V) - Ramrajatala
* Dakshineshwar - Thakurpukur

Since the commencement of construction, the project had to contend with several problems, such as the unavailability of sufficient funds till 1977-78, relocation of underground utilities, court injunctions, an irregular supply of vital materials, and so on. The laying of the founding stone was done in 1972, but actual construction of line 1 started only in 1978. Line 1 is 17 km. long with 17 stations (see above). Running of the first metro car on the line by 1984 was considered a great engineering challenge.Former railways minister A. B. A. Ghani Khan Chowdhury took a massive effort to perform it. The first section opened between Esplanade & Bhowanipore (Now called Netaji Bhawan). There were no connections of this stretch with the two depots at Dum Dum & Tollygunge(Now called Mahanayak Uttam Kumar). So metro cars had to be put down on the track near Esplanade by crane, by directly digging the road surface. Initially, only four car trains were run until 1986. There were no magnetic gates or escalators at that time and ordinary revolving gates served as exits. The Metro too operated on only a single line. Two years later, line 1 extended up to Tollygunge, at the southern end. At the same time, the metro service was extended to the double line. Magnetic tickets and more entry gates were also introduced at that time. The number of compartments in each train was increased to eight.

Metro service was also started from Dum Dum, at the northern end, to Belgachhia in parallel with the extension of the line to the south. But this short portion was not popular and the service was closed down to be restarted when the entire stretch along the north-south corridor was completed.

After 1986, many political incidents hampered the construction, and work almost stopped for nearly six years. After restarting work, the Dum Dum to Shyambazar metro service was started in 1994. This portion was served by four car trains. Two months later, the Esplanade - Chandni Chowk section was opened, and Chandni Chowk - Central section opened three months later. The service from Dum Dum to Tollygunge started in 1995, with Mahatma Gandhi Road Station, being opened in 1996. During this time, more magnetic gates and escalators were added and the revolving gates were slowly phased out.

The latest extension connecting Tollygunge (Pesently Mahanayak Uttamkumar) to Garia Bazar (Presently Kavi Nazrul) 5.85 km. metro route was inaugurated on August 22, 2009.

A final extension from Garia Bazar (Kavi Nazrul) to New Garia (near Garia Railway Station) will be inaugurated in September 12, 2010, taking the total number of stations to 23.
[edit] Features
[edit] Technical Features
A metro car is getting ready for journey towards Kavi Najrul at Dumdum

Metro construction is of a very complex nature requiring application of several new technologies in the fields of civil, electrical, signaling and telecommunication engineering. Indian engineers backed by their own experience and supplemented by their studies abroad, adopted advanced technologies in the following fields for the first time in India.

* Cut and cover method of construction using diaphragm walls and sheet piles.
* Use of extensive decking to keep the traffic flowing over the cut while construction is in progress underneath.
* Shield tunneling using compressed air and airlocks.
* Ballast less track using elastic fastenings, rubber pads, epoxy mortar and nylon inserts.
* Air-conditioning and ventilation system for environmental control of stations and tunnels.
* Third Rail current collection system for traction.
* Underground substations with dry type transformers and SF-6 circuit breakers.
* Tunnel-Train VHF-radio communication system.
* Micro-processor-based train control and supervisory remote control system for substations.
* Automatic ticket vending and checking system.

[edit] Reservation for women

Recently, the Kolkata Metro Railway experimented with the practice of reserving two entire compartments for women.[2]

This system was found to be ineffective and caused inconvenience for a lot of commuters(including women) and the plan was eventually dropped by the metro authority. But a certain section of seats in each of the 8 compartments is reserved for women.
[edit] Salient features
Total route length 22.3 km (13.9 miles)
Stations 23 (15 underground, 2 on surface and 6 elevated)
Gauge 1676 mm (5 ft 6 in), Indian Broad Gauge
Cars per train 8
Train length 162.4 m (8-car)
Maximum permissible speed 55 km/h (34 mph)
Average speed 30 km/h (19 mph)
Voltage 750 V D.C.
Method of current collection third rail
Travel Time: Dum Dum to Kavi Nazrul 41 minutes (approx.)
Capacity (per car) 326 passengers (278 standing, 48 sitting)
Capacity (per train) 2590 passengers (approx.)
Headways 6-8 minutes in peak hours & 10-15 minutes at other times
Total estimated cost of the project Indian rupee 1,825 crore (US$396 million)(approx.)
Environment control Forced ventilation with washed and cooled air
[edit] Method of construction

* Cut and cover method of construction using diaphragm walls and sheet piles.
* Use of extensive decking to keep the traffic flowing over the cut while construction in progress underneath.
* Shield tunneling using compressed air and airlocks.
* Ballast less track using elastic fastenings, rubber pads, epoxy mortar and nylon inserts.
* Air-conditioning and ventilation system for environmental control of stations and tunnels.
* Third Rail current collection system for traction.

[edit] Rolling Stock
Kolkata Metro near Dum Dum

The whole fleet is vestibuled. Carbodies and mechanical components were made by ICF Chennai with electrical components made by NGEF, Bangalore. The fleet is unique in that it is the only railroad equipment in India with end-mounted cab doors (except for some of the WAG-6 series locomotives).

ICF has specifically designed, manufactured and supplied these cars for the Kolkata Metro Underground Railway System. The special features incorporated are:

* Traction power supply through third rail current collection system.
* Automatic door opening / closing and continuous monitoring of the transit.
* Automatic Train Stop (ATS) system which will automatically apply the brakes in case of human failure.
* Automatic train operation (ATO) with the driver acting as the train supervisor (optional).
* A public address system is provided on the trains to announce approaching stations. A central dispatcher can contact any of the train crew and also make important announcements directly to passengers over the system.

With all these features, the design and manufacturing process of these cars to a very high standard of reliability and safety has been a challenge. This was achieved without any technical collaboration. The entire fleet is capable of carrying 2356 passengers.

In August 2010, the current class of rolling stock will begin to be phased out and replaced by new air-conditioned cars. Out of a total of 18 trainsets owned by the Kolkata Metro, 11 are supposed to be retired within a few years and the remaining 7 will be rebuilt with new features including air conditioning, which is badly needed.
[edit] Routes
[hide]Kolkata Metro
Abbreviated in this map
Towards Barackpore
Right side head station of cross-platform interchange Left side of cross-platform interchange
Dum Dum
Straight track Abbreviated in this map
Main Line towards Sealdah
Stop on track
Belgachhia
Stop on track
Shyambazar
Stop on track
Shobhabazar-Sutanuti
Stop on track
Girish Park
Stop on track
Mahatma Gandhi Road
Stop on track
Central (Kolkata Metro)
Stop on track
Chandni Chowk
Stop on track
Esplanade
Stop on track
Park Street
Stop on track
Maidan
Stop on track
Rabindra Sadan
Stop on track
Netaji Bhavan
Stop on track
Jatin Das Park
Stop on track
Kalighat
Stop on track
Rabindra Sarobar
Station on track
Mahanayak Uttamkumar (Tollygunge)
Stop on track
Netaji (Kundghat)
Stop on track
Masterda Surya Sen (Bansdroni)
Stop on track
Gitanjali (Naktala)
End station
Kavi Nazrul (Garia Bazar)
Kolkata Metro Map (Update: From Aug 2009, the green dotted section from Tollygunj to Garia is also operational)
[edit] North South Corridor

The stations on the metro (south to north) are :

* New Garia (interchange with Sealdah South section Suburban local train)
* Sahid Khudiram (Formerly: Briji)
* Kavi Nazrul (Formerly: Garia Bazar)
* Gitanjali (Formerly: Naktala)
* Masterda Surya Sen (Formerly: Bansdroni)
* Netaji (Formerly: Kudghat)
* Mahanayak Uttamkumar (Formerly: Tollygunge)
* Rabindra Sarobar
* Kalighat
* Jatin Das Park
* Netaji Bhavan (Formerly: Bhowanipore)
* Rabindra Sadan
* Maidan (Proposed name: Gostho Pal)
* Park Street
* Esplanade
* Chandni Chowk
* Central
* Mahatma Gandhi Road
* Girish Park
* Shobhabazar-Sutanuti
* Shyambazar
* Belgachhia
* Dum Dum

[edit] Alignment & Interchanges

Dum Dum station and all the stations from Kavi Nazrul to Netaji are elevated, Mahanayak Uttam Kumar station is at ground level, and all the other stations are underground. Dum Dum, Park Street, Mahanayak Uttam Kumar, Netaji, Masterda Surya Sen, Geetanjali and Kavi Nazrul have side platforms; all other stations have island platforms except Central, which has side platforms. Shyambazar, Central & Esplanade have mezzanine passages to ease overcrowding. All stations except Tollygunge, Maidan & Park Street have escalators. Dum Dum & Shobhabazar have connections to IR and Belgachhia, Shyambazar, Esplanade & Kalighathave connections to the tram network. Tram lines also serve Shobhabazar, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Central, Jatin Das Park, Rabindra Sarobar & Mahanayak Uttam Kumar stations. Previously Park street & Maidan stations were also served by tram. Rail lines also serve Rabindra Sarobar station.
[edit] Extension of North South Corridor

The new extension to Garia Bazar in the south opened to public on 23 August 2009. The Garia Bazar station was named after Kazi Nazrul. A final extension from Garia Bazar (Kavi Nazrul) to New Garia (near Garia Railway Station) will be inaugurated on October 7, 2010, bringing the total number of stations to 23.
[edit] Fare Structure

The Metro fare is distance-based. Fare structure on Metro Railway was last revised with effect from 01.10.2001 after a gap of 3 years. The present fare structure is as below:
ZONE DISTANCE (km) FARE (Indian rupee)
I up to 5 4.00
II 5-10 6.00
III 10-15 8.00
IV 15-20 10.00
V 20 and above 12.00
[edit] Tickets
Kolkata Metro Single Person single journey ticket

The following types of tickets are available.

*
o Single trip tickets (1 person)
o Double-trip tickets (1 person)
o Single-trip tickets (2 to 7 people)
o Double-trip tickets (2 to 7 people)
o Daily Tickets (Day Passes)
o Multi Ride Tickets
o Minimum Multi Ride (MMR) - Valid for 21 days (12 trips available by paying fare for 11 trips)
o Limited Multi Ride (LMR) - Valid for 30 days (40 trips available by paying fare for 30 trips)
o Extended Multi Ride (EMR) - Valid for 90 days (80 trips available by paying fare for 55 trips)

The above tickets are issued for all three zones.
[edit] Automatic Fare Collection

Metro Rail, Kolkata introduced Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) system in August/September'94, with magnetic tickets and Passenger Control (PC). This has now been extended to all stations from Dum Dum to Kavi Nazrul. This magnetic ticket is available in six different types:

* Single-trip
* Double-trip
* MMR
* LMR
* EMR
* Multi Person Single-trip
* Multi Person Double-trip

Smart Cards

In 2005, Metro Kolkata introduced the Smart Card-based ticketing system, where a person is issued a plastic chip card which can be refilled for a certain amount of money. The smart cards automatically determine the distance traveled and deduct the ticket price for that distance from the remaining balance. This was started to reduce the cost of magnetic tickets, and therefore the price of the same journey is Re.3less than that of magnetic tickets.
[edit] East - West Metro

East And West Metro, a Indian rupee 4,874.58 crore (US$1.1 billion) project to connect Kolkata with Howrah by an underwater metro line has been cleared by the federal government.[3] The total length will be 14.67 km (8.9 km underground and 5.77 km elevated). This line will be constructed and maintained by a separate body named Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation (KMRC).

The West Bengal government had earlier appointed Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited to conduct a feasibility study of the project after which the government had initially put the project on hold due to funding issues.The underwater metro plan was first thought of when the first metro service was inaugurated in Kolkata in 1984 by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The route is to cover 12 stations and go under the river through a tunnel. Foundation Stone was laid on 22 February 2009.
[edit] Proposed Route

Construction of line 2 started in March 2009. The East-West Metro will run from Salt Lake Sector 5 (in the east) to Howrah Maidan(in the west). Unlike line 1, which is operated by the Indian Railways, line 2 will be operated by a new company - Kolkata Metro Rail Corporation (KMRC). Trains will be air conditioned, and underground stations will be equipped with platform screen doors, both of which are not present on Line 1. It will run on standard (4' 8.5", 1435mm) gauge, unlike line 1, which uses broad (5' 6", 1676mm) gauge.

Proposed stations are - Salt Lake Sector 5, Karunamoyee Housing Estate, Central Park, City Center, Bengal Chemical Office, Yuva Bharati Krirangan, Phoolbagan, Sealdah Station, Central (crossing with line 1), Mahakaran, Howrah Station and Howrah Maidan. Between Mahakaran & Howrah Station, the metro will run 100 ft. under the Hooghly River (first underwater metro in India). The line will be elevated between Salt Lake Sector 5 and Yuva Bharati Krirangan, and the remaining stretch will be underground.Transfer stations will be located at at Sealdah and Howrah. Completion date is estimated to be October 31, 2014.

In future the line may be extended to Newtown (in the east) and to Domjur (in the west).
[edit] Future Projects & Plans

The remaining portion of the southern extension of line 1 (2 km) up to New Garia has been delayed due to issues of land acquisition.[4] The stations that remain to be connected are: Briji (Proposed name: Shahid Khudiram) and New Garia. Except New Garia, all stations will be elevated. New Garia station will be at ground level. There may be a new Kolkata Suburban Railway station constructed at New Garia for interchange with metro. This extension currently under construction is expected to run parallel to the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Road & Garia Station Road, adjoining the Tolly Nullah, and is expected to be opened to the public on March 14, 2010.

There is a plan to extend the line in the north from Dumdum to Baranagar (3 km).[4] The proposed line adds two more stations - Noapara and Baranangar to the existing line. The construction of this line started in February 2010. This line has also been planned to be extended till Dakshineshwar (2 km) and Barrackpore (12.5 km) in the north.[4]

It has also been proposed to build a 18.5 km long line from Noapara to Barasat via Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport.[4] In the long run, a connection between New Garia and the Airport(32 km) via Saltlake and Rajarhat is on the cards in order to help reduce travel time between the southern fringes of Kolkata to the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport. Another line from Joka to BBD Bag via Majerhat with an interchange with the East-West Metro is also in the pipeline.[4]

 

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