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Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) - full forms of short words


Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 2 of 193
AACG American Association for Crystal GrowthAAE Army Air FieldAAES American Association of Engineering SocietiesAAF Advanced Attack Helicopter AAFS Afrikanisch-Asiatische Studentenförderung e.V. (Göttingen)AAH Air to Air MissileAAID American Academy of Implant DentistyAAL ATM Adaptation Layer AAL5 ATM Adaptation Layer5AAM Average Annual Aircrew PayaaO am Angegebenen OrtAAP Air to Air RefuelingAAPA Applicant's Admitted Prior ArtAAPM American Association of Physicists in MedicineAAPPS Association of Asia Pacific Physical SocietiesAAPT American Association of Physics TeachersAAR Altitude Attitude Retention SystemAARS Anti-Air WarfareAAS Advanced Automation SystemAAS American Astronautical SocietyAAS American Astronomical SocietyAAS Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Atom-Absorptions-SpektrometrieAATSR Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ENVISAT)AAV adeno-assoziierte VirenAAW Air BaseAB Abvanced Blade ConceptABB Asea Brown Boveri AG (Mannheim)ABC ABDR Aircraft Battle Damage Repair ABC Atanasoff-Berry Computer (Iowa State College, 1938-1942)ABC Atomary Biologically ChemicallyABDO Allgemeine Bestimmungen für DiplomprüfungsordnungenABDR Aircraft Based Infrared DetectionABE Amtliche Betriebserlaubnis (Typprüfung Kfz)ABET Accrediting Board of Engineering and Technology (USA)ABIRD Aerodrome BeaconABM Advanced Buffer MaterialABM Anti-Ballistic MissileABN Air Conditioner ABR Available Bit RateABRIXAS A Broad-Band Imaging X-Ray All-Sky Survey (Satellit 1999, gescheitert)ABS Acrylnitril-Butadien-StyrolABS Alternate Billing ServiceABS Antiblockiersystem; Anti-Lock Braking System (Kfz)ABT Ausschuss für Begutachtertraining (DAR, Normungsarbeit)ABU Asia(-Pacific) Broadcasting UnionAC Alternating CurrentAC All Composite Aircraft ProgrammeAC Admission Control (Telekommunikation)AC Alternating Current (Wechselstrom)

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 3 of 193
AC Access Controler ACA Academic Cooperation Association (europäische Organisation)ACA American Crystallographic AssociationACAP Active Cyclic Controller A-CBCACC Area Conrol Center ACC Active Cyclic and Collective ControllersACCC Allied Command EuropeACCU Advisory Committee of CERN UsersACD Advanced Chemistry DevelopmentACD Automatic Call DistributionACE Aft Cabin Floor ACE Advanced Computing EnvironmentACE American Council on ExerciseACE Angiotensin-Converting EnzymeACE Application Creation Environment (Telekommunikation)ACE Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (adaptive Optik)ACE Community Action for Cooperation in the Field of Economics (EU)ACELP Adaptive Code-Excited Linear PredictionACESACES Atlantic Coral Ecosystem StudyACESA Advanced Composites with Embedded Sensors and ActuatorsACF Aircraft Configuration ListACIA Asynchronous Communication Interface Adapter ACK Acknowledege(ment) (Datentransfer)ACK AcknowledgeACL Additional Crewmember ACL Access Control List (Telekommunikation)ACL Agent Communication LanguagesACL Asynchronous Connectionless Link (Telekommunikation)ACLR Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (Telekommunikation)ACM Adress Complete MessageACM Airborne Command PostACM Association for Computing MachineryACMP American College of Medical PhysicsACP Air Cycle SystemACP Advanced Computing Project (Fermilab, etwa 1980)ACP American Center of Physics (College Park, MD)ACPS Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow (Astrophysik)ACRV Assured Crew Return Vehicle (Raumfahrt)ACS Active Control SystemACS Active Control TechnologyACS American Chemical SocietyACSI Atari Computer System InterfaceACSR Active Control of Structural ResponseACT Air Combat TrainingACT Air Cushion VehicleAkkreditierungsagentur für die Studiengänge Chemie, Biochemie undChemieingenieurwesen an Universitäten und FachhochschulenOptimal Acoustic Equivalent Source Descriptors for Automotive NoiseModelling

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 4 of 193
ACT Active Control Technology (Flugzeug)ACTH Adrenocorticotropes HormonACTS Advanced Communication Technologies and Services (EC)ACV Air Data Converter AD Army Digital Avionics SystemAD Administration ModuleAD ante dominumADANO Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Audiologen und NeurootologenADAS Air Data Computer ADC Air Data Converter ADC Advance Drawing Change NoticeADC Analog-to-Digital Converter ADC Automatic Development Chamber ADC Automotive Distance ControlADCN Advanced Diagnostic Engine Monitoring SystemsADEA Age Discrimination in Employment Act (USA)ADEHS Air Defense Exercise AreaADEXA Automatic Direction Finder ADF Attitude Direction Indicator ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADI Air Defense Identification ZoneADIZ Advanced Development ObjectiveAdL Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften (DDR)ADL All-Digital Loop (Telekommunikation)ADLC Adaptive Liquid-Crystal LensADM Add/Drop Multiplexer (Telekommunikation)ADM Area Dimensional Model (Lärmbewertung)ADN Ammoniumdinitramid (Sprengstoff)ADO Advanced Digital Optical Control SystemADOCS Automatic Data Processing (Information System)ADOCS Advanced Digital Optical Control System (Flugzeug)ADONIS Acoustic Daylight Ocean Noise Imaging SystemADP AdenosindiphosphatADP AmmoniumdihydrogenphosphatADP Avalanche PhotodiodeADP(IS) Advanced Document Revision NoticeADPA American Defense Preparedness AssociationADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code ModulationADR AdressADR Accumulated Doppler Range (Satellitenortungsverfahren)ADRCS Automatic Data Recording and Control SystemADRN Air Data SystemADS Active Dipping Sonar ADS Air Distribution SystemADS Air Defense SuppressionADS Accessory Drive SystemADSB Auto Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (Flugverkehr)ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber LineADSL Asymmetric(al) Digital Subscriber Loop (or: Line)

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 5 of 193
ADSR Attack Decay Sustain Release (stages of Envelope of a sound)ADTMADTV Advanced Definition TelevisionADU Air Data UnitADUC Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutscher Universitätsprofessoren für ChemieAdW Akademie der Wissenschaften (DDR)AE Acoustic EmissionAE Astronomische Einheit (Entfernung Erde-Sonne = 1,49 × 10^11 m)AEC Architecture/Engineering/Construction (Industry)AEC Atomic Energy Commission (USA)AECL Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.AEE Office of Environment and Energy (FAA)AEF Normenausschuss Einheiten und FormelzeichenAEG Aircraft Engine GroupAEG Allgemeine ElektrizitätsgesellschaftAEI Automatic Equipment IdentificationAEL Accessible Emission LimitAEM Area Equivalent Method (Lärmbewertung)AEMT (Fraunhofer-)Arbeitsgruppe für Elektronische MedientechnologieAEO All Engines OperatingAEP Akustisch evozierte PotentialeAEPI Atmospheric Emissions Photometric ImagingAES Advanced Encryption StandardAES Application Environment ServicesAES Associate Executive SecretaryAES Audio Engineering SocietyAES Auger-Elektronen-Spektroskopie / Auger Electron SpectroscopyAESS Aerospace and Electronic Systems SocietyAEV FhAZ für Entsorgungs- und Verkehrslogistik (Wildau, Brandenburg)AEW Airborne Early WarningAEWAAF Application FunctionAF Assured ForwardingAF Assured Forwarding (Datentransfer)AF Audio FrequencyAFAL Air Force Astronautics LaboratoryAFASAFB Air Force Base (USA)AFC Aramidfibre compositeAFC Alkali Fuel CellAFC Automatic Frequenz ControlAFC(S) Automatic Flight Control (System)AFCC Automatic Flight Control Computer AFCENT Allied Forces Central EuropeAFD Anticipatory Failure DeterminationAFE Analog Front End (Telekommunikation)AFFDL[Fraunhofer-]Arbeitsgruppe für Drahtlose Kommunikations- undMultimediatechnik (Erlangen)[Afrikanisch-Eurasisches Regionalabkommen zur Erhaltung der Wasservögel]Abteilung für Angewandte Systemanalyse (KernforschungszentrumKarlsruhe)Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio,USA

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 6 of 193
AFFF Aqueous Film Forming FoamAFIS Aerodrom Flight Information ServiceAFLS Approach Flashlighting SystemAFM Atomic Force MicroscopeAFNMAFO Auftragsforschung [und -entwicklung] Ost (BMFT)AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research (USA)AFOTEC US Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center AFRPL Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (Edwards Air Force Base, CA, USA)AFS Advanced Freephone ServiceAFS Aluminum Foam SandwichAFTE Automated Functinal Test EquipmentAFTN Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication NetworkAG AktiengesellschaftAG ArbeitsgruppeAG Astronomische Gesellschaft e.V.AGA Aerodrome Ground AidsAGA Automatic Gain Amplifier AGARD Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and DevelopmentAGARDAGASA Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (Japan, zum Nachweis kosmischer Strahlung)AGASP Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling ProgramAGB Accessory Gear BoxAGB Asymptotic Giant Branch (Astronomie)AGB Automatische Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung (Kfz)AG-BL Arbeitsgemeinschaft Forschungseinrichtungen Blaue ListeAGC Automatic Gain ControlAGCAGC Automatic Gain Controller AGE Aircraft Ground EquipmentAGEG Arbeitsgemeinschaft Europäischer GrenzregionenAGF Arbeitsgemeinschaft der GroßforschungseinrichtungenAGIC Acitve Gearbox Interface ControlAGIL Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internet und Linguistik (Göttingen)AGKr Arbeitsgemeinschaft KristallographieAGL Above Ground LevelAGM Air to Ground MissileAGN Active Galactic NucleiA-GPS Assisted Global Positioning SystemAGS Alternating Gradient SynchrotronAGTY AgilityAGU American Geophysical UnionAGV Automatic Guided VehicleAGW Access Gateway (Telekommunikation)AH Attack Helicopter AH Artifical HorizonArbeitsgemeinschaft Fachdidaktik der Naturwissenschaften und der MathematikAdvisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development, North AtlanticTreaty Organization[Fraunhofer-] Anwendungszentrum für Computergraphik in Chemie undPharmazie

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 13 of 193
ASE ATM Switching ElementASE siehe ESAASEAN (Südostasiatische regionale Zusammenarbeit)ASEE American Society of Enginering EducationASEM (asiatisch-europäisches Gipfeltreffen)ASEPS-OASFAdvanced Systems FormatASHA American Speech-Language-Hearing AssociationASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning EngineersASI Airspeed Indicator ASI Aircraft-Sensor InterfaceASI Agenza Spaziale ItalianeASI Amorph-Silizium-Glasmodule (Photovoltaik)ASI Asynchronous Serial Interface (Telekommunikation)ASICASIM Arbeitsgemeinschaft Simulation in der Gesellschaft für InformatikASJ Acoustical Society of JapanASK Akademische Software Kooperation (Universität Karlsruhe)ASK Amplitude Shift Keying (Digitales Modulationsverfahren)ASL Above Sea LevelASL American Sign Language (Taubstummen-Gebärdensprache)ASM Anti Ship MissileASME American Society of Mechanical EngineersASMW Amt für Standardisierung, Messwesen und Warenprüfung (DDR)ASN Airborne Special Type Navigational AidsASN ATM Switching NetworkASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation 1ASNAP as soon as possibleASNE American Society of Naval EngineersASOC Air Support Operations Center ASP Adaptive Signal ProcessingASP Application Service Provider (Telekommunikation)ASP application server processesASPEC Audio Spectral Perceptual Entropic CodingASQC American Society for Quality ControlASR Air Staff RequirementASR Airport Suveillance Radar ASR Antischlupfregelung (Kfz)ASR Automatic (or: Advanced) Speech RecognitionASRAAM Advanced Short Range Air to Air MissileASROC Anti-Submarine RocketASS AcetylsalicylsäureASSIASSP Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (IEEE)ASSP Application Specific Standard ProductsASST Anti-Ship Surveillance and TargetingAstronomical Studies of Extrasolar Planetary Systems (Mount Palomar, CA,USA)Anwender-(Anwendungs-)spezifischer IC, Application-Specific IntegratedCircuitAkkreditierungsagentur für Studiengänge der Ingenieurwissenschaften undder Informatik

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 14 of 193
ASSW Anti-Surface Ship WarfareAST Air Staff TargetAST FhAZ für Systemtechnik (Illmenau, Thüringen)AStA Allgemeiner StudentenausschussASTAR Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol and RadiationASTERASTIA Armed Services Technical Informations Agency (USA)ASTM American Society for Testing MaterialsASTM American Society of Testing MaterialsASTRID Aarhus Storage Ring, DenmarkASTV Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (Raumfahrt)ASU Abgas-Sonder-UntersuchungASU ATM Service UnitASURA Advanced Speech Understanding and Rendering System of ATR (Japan)ASUW Anti-Surface Unit WarfareASVP Application Specific Standard ProductsASW Anti-Submarine WarfareAT Austria (im Internet und Patentwesen)AT Accelerated TimeAT&T American Telephone and Telegraph CompanyATA Actual Time of ArrivalATA Air Transport AssociationATAP Authorized to Transport Additional PassengersATAS Air to Air Self Defense Armament SystemATB Institut für Agrartechnik Bornim (Potsdam-Bornim)ATC Air Traffic ControlATC Advanced Technology ComponentATC Abstract Test Case (Telekommunikation)ATC Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor (Fusionsreaktortechnik, PPPL)ATC Air Traffic Control (Luftverkehrssteuerung)ATC American Television and Communications CorporationATC ATM Transfer Capabilities (Telekommunikation)ATD Actual Time of DepartureATDMA Advanced TDMAATE Automatic Test EquipmentATF Accelerator Test FacilityATF Advanced Tactical Fighter (USA, Flugzeug)ATI Above-Threshold IonizationATI Automatic Telephony Interpretation (CAIR, Korea)ATIP Asian Technology Information Program (US organization)ATKIS Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informations-SystemATLAS A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (CERN)ATLAS Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and ScienceATM Anti-Tank MissileATM Air Traffic ManagementATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode (Datennetz)ATM Attached Pressurized Module (Raumfahrt)ATM Automated Teller Machine (Bankwesen)



Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 41 of 193
DEMFTDomain of the Electro Magnetic Field TheoryDeMuX De-Multiplexer DE-NIC Network Information Center für Deutschland (Karlsruhe)DEP DepressionDERA Defense Evaluation & Research Agency (MOD, GB)DES Data Encryption Standard (or: System)DES Department of Electrical Science (NPL, UK)DES Diethylstilbestrol (Östrogen-Derivat)DEST DestinationDESY Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Hamburg)DET Detector Det DetachmentDETRESFA Distress PhaseDEU Display Electronic UnitDEZ Diethylzink (-Verfahren zur Papierkonservierung)DF Direction Finder DF Default ValueDFA Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie (Garching)DFB Distributed Feedback (Laser)DFCS Digital Flight Control SystemDFD Data Flow DiagramDFD Deutsches Fernerkundungsdatenzentrum (Oberpfaffenhofen)DFD Division of Fluid Dynamics (APS)DFDR Digital Flight Data Recorder DFE Digital Front End (Telekommunikation)DFF Data Flow Filter DFF Deutscher Fernsehfunk (DDR)DFG Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftDFH Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Hubschrauber und VertikalflugtechnikDFI Diabetes-Forschungsinstitut (Düsseldorf)DFJW Deutsch-Französisches JugendwerkDFKI Deutsches Forschungszentrum für künstliche Intelligenz (Saarbrücken)DFLDFN Deutsches Forschungsnetz (Datennetz)DFO Defined Flying ObjectDFS Dynamic Frequency SelectionDFS Dansk Fysisk SelskapDFS Dynamic Frequency Selection (Telekommunikation)DFT Discrete Fourier TransformDFT Discrete Fourier Transform, diskrete FouriertransformationDFÜ DatenfernübertragungDFÜ DatenfernübertragungDFÜ DatenfernübertragungDFVLRDFWM Degenerate Four Wave Mixing (Entartete Vier-Wellen-Mischung)DG Directional GyroDGaO Deutsche Gesellschaft für angewandte OptikDeutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftfahrt (Braunschweig, 1936) DeutscheForschungsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Braunschweig, 1962)Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt (1969-1989, danach: DLR)

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 42 of 193
DGE Dynamic Gain-Equalizer (optische Telekommunikation)DGF Deutsche Gesellschaft für Flugwissenschaften e.V. (1959)DGfB Deutsche Gesellschaft für BiophysikDGfE Deutsche Gesellschaft für ErziehungswissenschaftDGfS Deutsche Gesellschaft für SprachwissenschaftDGG Deutsche Geophysikalische GesellschaftDGG Deutsche Glastechnische Gesellschaft e.V.DGHS Deutsche Gesellschaft für humanes SterbenDGK Deutsche Gesellschaft für KristallographieDGLM Deutsche Gesellschaft für LasermedizinDGLR Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und RaumfahrtDGM Deutsche Gesellschaft für Materialkunde e.V.DGMK Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft für Erdöl, Erdgas und Kohle e.V.DGMP Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische PhysikDGPI Deutsche Gesellschaft für Produktinformationen mbHDGPs Deutsche Gesellschaft für PsychologieDGPS Differential Global Positioning SystemDGQ Deutsche Gesellschaft für QualitätDGS Deutsche GebärdenspracheDGS Deutsche Gesellschaft für SoziologieDGW Data GatewayDGWK Deutsche Gesellschaft für Warenkennzeichnung mbHDHB Digital Hot BenchDHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (Telekommunikation)DHF Deformed Helix FerroelectricsDHN Digital Home NetworkDHS Demographic and Health SurveysDHS Department of Homeland Security (USA, seit 2002)DHTML Dynamic HTMLDHU Data Handling Unit (Telekommunikation)DHV Deutscher Hochschulverband e.V.DHVZ Danger High Voltage ZoneDI Deliverable ItemDI Data ItemDI Direct InputDIAL Differential Absorption Lidar DIANE Direct Information Access Network for EuropeDIB Deutsches Institut für BetriebswirtschaftDIBS Digital In-Band Broadcasting SystemDICASS Directional Command Active Sonobuoys SystemDICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in MedicineDID Data Item DescriptionDID Direct Inward Dialing (Telephon)DID Destination IDDIF Data Interchange FormatDIFAR Dirction Finder and Ranger DIfE Deutsches Institut für Ernährungsforschung (Potsdam)DIFF Deutsches Institut für Fernstudien (Tübingen)DiffServ Differentiated Services



Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 86 of 193
IEM Institution of Engineers, MalaysiaIEM Instructor Evaluation MatrixIEM Integral Equation MethodIEM Integrated Electronics ModuleIEM Integrated Elevation ModelIEM Integrated Environmental Management, Inc.IEM Integrated Equipment Manager (Boeing Aerospace)IEM Integrated ESM MastIEM Intelligent Energy ManagementIEM Interim Examination and MaintenanceIEM Internal Electricity MarketIEM Interpretative / Explanatory Material (Joint Aviation Requirements)IEM Invalid End of MessageIEM Istanbul Emniyet Mudurlugu (Istanbul Security Administration)IEMB Institut für Erhaltung und Modernisierung von Bauwerken (Berlin)IEMFT Imperium of the Electro Magnetic Field Theory (see also DEMFT)IEN Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris (Turin, Italien)IEPE Integrated Electronic PiezoelectricIERE Institution of Electronic and Radio Engineers (London)IESEIETF Internet Engineering Task ForceIETS Inelastic Electron Tunneling SpectroscopyIF Intermediate fixIF Intermediate FrequencyIF Intentional FieldIF/C Interfache/Computer IFA Internationale FunkausstellungIFAC International Federation of Automatic ControlIfADo Institut für Arbeitsphysiologie (Dortmund)IFAMIFC Industry Foundation Class (Schnittstelle)IFD Instrument Flight DayIFDR Integrated Flight Data RecordingIFE In-Flight Entertainment SystemIfE Institut für Erdölforschung (Clausthal-Zellerfeld)IFE Institut für Festkörperphysik und ElektronenmikroskopieIFF Identification Friend/FoeIFF [Fraunhofer-] Institut für Fabrikbetrieb und -automatisierung (Magdeburg)IFF Institut für Festkörperforschung [a): am IFW, b): am KFA, Jülich]IFF Interchange File Format (Graphikformat)IFFT Inverst Fast Fourier TransformIFFT Inverse Fast Fourier TransformIFGInter Frame Gaps (Telecom)IFG Input Function Generator IfH Institut für Hochenergiephysik (DDR, Zeuthen, AdW)IFIPIfL Institut für Länderkunde (Leipzig)[Fraunhofer-] Institut für Experimentelles Software Engineering(Kaiserslautern)[Fraunhofer-] Institut für Fertigungstechnik und AngewandteMaterialforschung (Bremen)International Federation of Information Processing Societies und:International Federation for Information Processing

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 87 of 193
IfL Institut für LeibesübungenIFLIR Improved Foreward Looking InfraredIFM Improved VHF-FMIfM Institut für Meereskunde (Kiel)IfN Institut für Neurobioogie (Magdeburg)ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (München)IFOR (Internationale Friedenstruppe für Bosnien)IFORS International Federation of Operational Research SocietiesIFOS Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik (Univ. Kaiserslautern)IFR Instrument Flight RulesIfR Institut für Radiochemie (FZR)IFRB International Frequency Registration Board (in Genf)IFS Institut für Festkörperanalytik und Strukturforschung (am IFW)IfS Institut für Sicherheitsforschung (FZR)IFSA International Forestry Students AssociationIFSDR In Flight Shut Down RateIFSS Intermediate Frequency Sampling StageIFT [Fraunhofer-] Institut für Festkörpertechnologie (München)IfT Institut für Troposphärenforschung (Leipzig)IFT(o)MM International Federation for the Theory of Machines and MechanismsIFU Interface UnitIFU [Fraunhofer-] Institut für Atmosphärische UmweltforschungIFW Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstofforschung (Dresden, seit 1992)IfW Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel)IFX Interactive Financial ExchangeIfZ Institut für Zeitgeschichte (München)IG Intelligence GatheringIG Intrinsic GetteringIGAPPI Interdivisional Group for Applied Physics and Physics in Industry (EPS)IGB Intermediate GearboxIGB Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (Berlin)IGB [Fraunhofer-] Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (Stuttgart)IGBP Internationales Geosphären-Biosphären-Programm (Ökologie)IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor IGDIGE In Ground EffectIGERT Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (NSF, USA)IGES International Graphics Exchange StandardsIGK Integrated Gatekeeper (Telekommunikation)IGLO Informal Group of RTD Liaison Officers in Brussels (EU)IGMP Internet Group Management (or: Multicast) Protocol (Telekommunikation)IGN Installations-Geräuschnormal (DIN 52218)IGP Interior Gateway Protocol (Telekommunikation)IGPD Interdivisional Group on Physics for Development (EPS)IGS International GPS Service for Geodynamics (Satelliten-Geodäsie)IGV Inlet Guide VaneIGV Institut für Grenzflächenforschung und Vakuumphysik (Jülich)

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 133 of 193
OSZE Organisation für Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit in EuropaOT Operational Task EndOTA Office of Technology Assessment (USA, Congress)OTC One Touch Com (Telekommunikation)OTCH of Overrung Crossing HeightOTD Observed Time Difference (Telekommunikation)OTDM Optical Time Division Multiplexing (optische Telekommunikation)OTDOA OTD of Arrival (Telekommunikation)OTDR Optical Time Domain ReflectometryOTD-Sim Order to Delivery SimulationOTF On-Top-Fix(ing)OTH Optical Transport Hierarchy (optische Telekommunikation)OTHT Over-the-Horizon TargetingOTN Optical Transmission NetworkOTN Open Transport Network (Verkehrsleitsystem)OTN Optical Transmission Network (optische Telekommunikation)OTN ODUk Pat Optical Transmission Network Data Unit PathOTP One Time PasswordOTPI On-Top-Positioning Indicator OTS Optical Transmission System (optische Telekommunikation)OTU Optical Channel Transport UnitOTUk Optical Channel Transport Unit kOU Open University (UK)OUTBD OutboardOVC Output Variance ConstraintOvD Offizier vom DienstOVHT OverheatOVLD OverloadOVLD OverlordOVRO Owens Valley Radio ObservatoryOVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor OWF Optimum Working Frequencyows Obstacle warning SystemOWS Optical Wavelength Switched (optische Telekommunikation)ows Overload Warning SystemOXC Optical Cross Connect (optische Telekommunikation)OXC Optical Cross-ConnectOXID Exchange IDOXRB Oxygen replacement bottlesOXY OxygenOZIPM Ozone Isopleth Plotting with Optional Mechanism
p.l.c. public limited company (UK)p.t.o. please turn over (= b.w.)P/C Part CardP/M Tr Personal/Material and Troop TransportP/N Part Number P2S Parallel-to-Serial (Converter)PA Product Assurance

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 134 of 193
PA Pennsylvania (US-Staat)PA Power Amplifier PA 1 Proportion of all arisings that arePA 2 Proportional of all arising that arePA 2a rectified at intermediate levelPA 3 Proportion of all arising that are rectified

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 135 of 193
PBH Physikzentrum Bad Honnef (DPG)PBI Physics-Based IndustriesPBN pyrolytisches BornitridPBO PolybenzobioxazolPBS Primer-Bindungsstelle (in RNA)PBT Polybutylenterephthalat, Poly Butylene TerephthalatePBWA Plasma Beat-Wave Accelerator PBX Private Branch ExchangePBX Private Branch ExchangePBX Plastic Bonded Explosive (Sprengstoff)PBX Private Branch Exchange (Internet)PBX-M Princeton Beta Experiment - Modified (Fusionsreaktortechnik)PBZ PartialbruchzerlegungPC PolycarbonatPC Pseudo CodePC Personal Computer PC Personal Computer PC PolycarbonatPCA Physical Configuration AuditPCA Proportional Counter Array (beim RXTE)PCAST President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (USA)PCB Printed Circuit BoardPCB polychlorierte BiphenylePCB Printed Circuit BoardPCC Partial Correlation CoefficientPCC polychloriertes CamphenPCD Power Control DevicePCDE Peak Code Domain Error (Telekommunikation)PCF Photonic Crystal FibrePCF Polymer Cladded Fiber (optische Telekommunikation)PCG Project Coordination Group (Telekommunikation)PCH Paging ChannelPCI Peripheral Component Interconnect (Datenbus)PCIMG PCI Industrial Computers Manufacturers GroupPCM Parallel Climate ModelPCM Phase Change MaterialPCM Puls-Code-ModulationPCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International AssociationPCN Personal Communications NetworkPCO Point of Control and Observation (Telekommunikation)PCO Public Call Office (Telephon)PCP PentachlorphenolPCR Peak Cell Rate (Telekommunikation)PCR Polymerase Chain ReactionPCR Predictive Control of ReactorsPCS Personal Communications Service (or: System)PCS Photon Correlation SpectroscopyP-CSCF Proxy CSCFPCSS Personal Communication Satellite Systems

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 136 of 193
PCT Patent Cooperation TreatyPCU Pilotvs Control UnitPCU Propeller Control UnitPCU Packet Control Unit (Telekommunikation)PCU Power Conditioning UnitPCU Power Control UnitPCX (Dateinamenerweiterung: Graphikdatei)PCX Private Communication Exchange (Telekommunikation)PD PrivatdozentPD Proportional-Derivative (Control), Proportional-Differential (Regler)PD(P) Project Definition (Phase)PD(R) Preliminary Design (Review)PDA persönlicher digitaler AssistentPDA persönlicher digitaler AssistentPDA Personal Digital Assistent (Telekommunikation)PDCPDCH Packet Data Channels (Telekommunikation)PDCP Packet Data Compression (or: Convergence) Protocol (Telekommunikation)PDD Photodynamische DiagnostikPDE Partial Differential EquationPDE PhosphodiesterasePDF Probability Distribution FuncitonPDF Postscript Document Format (Dateiformat von Adobe Systems Inc.)PDF Portable Document FormatPDF Probability Density FunctionPDGPacket Data GatewayPDGF Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (Blutplättchen-Wachstumsfaktor)PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (Telekommunikation)PDI Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik (Berlin)PDL Page Description Language (Printer Server)PDL Polarization Dependent Loss (optische Telekommunikation)PDLC Polymer-Dispersed Liquid CrystalPDM Polarization Division Multiplexing (optische Telekommunikation)PDM Product Data ManagementPDMS PolydimethylsiloxanPDN Packet Data Network (Telekommunikation)PDO Packet Data Optimized (Telekommunikation)PDP Packet Data Protocol (Telekommunikation)PDP Plasma Discharge (or: Display) PanelPDR Preliminary Design ReviewPDS Payload Data Segment (Telekommunikation)PDS Permanent Data Storage SystemPDS PolydioxanonPDSN (Packet Data Serving Node)PDSN (Packet Data Serving Node)PDT Photodynamic Therapy, Photodynamische TherapiePDTS Programmable Data Terminal SetPDU Packet Data Unit (Telekommunikation)Personal (or: Portable) Digital Cellular (or: Communication)(Telekommunikation)

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 137 of 193
PDU Protocol Data Unit (Internet)PDX Princeton Divertor Experiment (Fusionsreaktortechnik, PPPL)PE Parabolic equationPE Provider Edge Router PE Phase Error (Telekommunikation)PE PolyethylenPE Prediction Error PE Provider Edge (Telekommunikation)PEACE Process Execution and Communication EnvironmentPEAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol (Telekommunikation)PEC Personal Equipment Connector PECVD Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor DepositionPED PedestalPEEM Photo-Emission Electron Microscope, Photoemissions-ElektronenmikroskopPEG PolyethylenglykolPEI Preliminary Engineering InspectionPEM Photon Emission MicroscopyPEM Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran (Brennstoffzelle)PEM Proton Exchange Membrane (Brennstoffzelle)PEMFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel CellPEN Physics Education NewsPEO Preliminary Engineering Order PEO PolyethylenoxidPEP Producibility Engineering & PlanningPEP Peak Envelope Power PEP Polymeric Electronics PackagingPEPSPER Packed Encoding Rule (ASN.1)Per PerchlorethenPERL Passivated Emitter and Rear, Locally Diffused (Solarzellen)PerlPerm PermutationPESC Power Electronics Specialist ConferencePET PolyethylenterephthalatPET Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie, Positron Emission TomographyPETRA Positron-Elektron-Tandem-Ring-Anlage (DESY)PEX Position Error CorrectionPF Protein foamPFAUPFCK Pre Flight CheckPFCS Primary Flight Control SystemPFD Primary Flight DisplayPFD Power Flux DensityPFD Power Flux DensityPFE Power Feeding EquipmentPFS Pre-Feasiblitity StudyPerformance Evaluation of Parallel Systems (EuropäischesForschungsprojekt)Practical Extraction and Report Language (scherzhaft auch: PathologicallyEclectic Rubbish Lister) (Textmanipulation)Programm zur finanziellen Absicherung von Unternehmensgründern ausHochschulen

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 138 of 193
PG Peer GroupPGA Pin Grid Array (Chipgehäuse)PGA PolyglykolidPGO (Hirn-Zellkomplex: pons, corpus geniculatum, occiput)PGP Pretty Good PrivacyPHA Preliminary Hazard AnalysisPHA PolyhydroxyalkanoatPHARE Poland and Hungary Action for Economic RestructuringPHB Per-Hop Behavior PHC Pilots Hand Controller PhD Doctor of PhilosophyPHENIX Pioneering High Energy New Ion Experiment (RHIC)PHI Position and Homing Indicator PHI Planbasierte HilfesystemePHM Prognostics and Health ManagamentPHP Hypertext Processor (Telekommunikation)PHS Personal Handyphone SystemPHS Peripheral High Speed (Bus)PHS & T Packaging, Handling, Storage & TransportationPHT plötzlicher HerztodPHY Physical Layer (DECT)PI Pilot InterfacePI Proportional-Integral (Control), Proportional-Integral (Regler)PIA Positronen-Intensitäts-Akkumulator (DESY)PIAFEPIB Permanent Industrial BureauPIC (Dateinamenerweiterung: Graphikdatei)PIC Photonic Integrated CircuitPICA Picosecond Imaging Circuit AnalysisPICHPaging Indication ChannelPICSPID Präimplantationsdiagnostik (Genetik)PIDPIDC Prototype International Data Center (Arlington, VA, USA)PII Publisher Item Identifier PIK Potsdam-Institut für KlimafolgenforschungPIM Personal Information Manager (Telekommunikation)PIMS Personal Information ManagersPIMS Personal Information ManagersPIM-SM Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (Internet)PIN Personal Identification Number PINPINET Physics Information NetworkPINT PSTN/Internet Interworking Group (Internet)PIP Picture in Picture (TV: kleines Zusatzbild von anderem Sender)Projet d'Ionisation et d'Accélération de Faisceaux Exotiques (Grenoble,Frankreich)Protocol Implementation (or: Instance) Conformance Statement(Telekommunikation)Proportional, Integral, Derivative (Control), Proportional-Integral-Differential(Regler)[Photodiode aus 3 Schichten: 'p'-type, 'i'ntrinsic, 'n'-type semiconductor],Positive-Intrinsic-Negative


Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 191 of 193
WSRT Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (NL)WSS Wide Screen SignallingWSS Worldwide Support Systems (HP)WSSD Warning System Symbol Generator WSTE Work Shop Test EquipmentWSTGE Work Shop Test and Ground EquipmentWSU Washington State UniversityWSXC Wavelength Selective Cross-Connect (optische Telekommunikation)WT Wave TrainWTA Wireless Telephony Application (Telekommunikation)WTAI Wireless Telephony Application Interface (Telekommunikation)WTDMA Wideband Time Division Multiple Access (Telekommunikation)WTO World Trade OrganizationWT-OXC Wavelength-Translating Optical Cross Connect (optische Kommunikation)WTR Wind-Temperatur-Radar WTW Walking Through WallsWTZ Wissenschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit (BMBF)WUSTL Washington University in St. LouisWV West Virginia (US-Staat)WV WiedervorlageWVU West Virginia University (USA)WVV Wind Velocity Vector WWF (alt:) World Wildlife Fund, (neu:) World-Wide Fund for NatureWWG World Wide Grid (Rechnernetz)WWMCCS World-Wide Military Control and Communication SystemWWW World Wide Web (Rechnernetz)www tma itloir when will we three meet again, in thunder, lightning or in rainWX Weather WX-R Weather Radar WY Wyoming (US-Staat)WYSIWYG What You See Is What You GetWZB Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung GmbHWZH Wissenschaftliches Zentrum Heidelberg (der IBM)
XAFS X-Ray Absorption Fine StructureXANES X-Ray Absorption Near Edge StructureXAS X-Ray Absorption SpectroscopyxBIOS Extended BIOSXBS Exchange Base(band) Station (Telekommunikation)XCUS ExcuseXCVR Experimental Transceiver xDSL Digital Subscriber Line (Telekommunikation)XFEED Cross FeedXFER Transfer XIPS Xenon Ion Propulsion Subsystem (Satellitenantrieb)XLS (Dateinamenerweiterung: Microsoft Excel-Datei)XLT (Dateinamenerweiterung: Microsoft Excel-Vorlage)XM Cross ModulationXM Cross Modulation (Distortion)

Abreviations In Engineering (AIE) 192 of 193
XMAS ChrismasXMF Cros Modulation FunctionXMIT TransmitXML Extensible Markup LanguageXMM X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission (Dez. 1999)XMP X-Ray MicroprobeXMSN TransmissionXMTR Transmitter XMTR Transmitter XOR Exclusive Or XP Transponder XPCS X-Ray Photon Correlation SpectroscopyX-PEEM X-Ray PEEMXPM Cross-Phase ModulationXPS X-Ray Photoelectron SpectroscopyXQUL XML Query & Update Language (Telekommunikation)XRB X-Ray Background (Astrophysik)XRD X-Ray Diffraction [Sensors]XRF X-Ray FluorescenceX-SAR X-Band SARXSE Executive for Services Environment (Telekommunikation)XSEM X-Ray Secondary-Emission MicroscopyXSL eXtensible Stylesheet LanguageXSL Extensible Stylesheet LanguageXTAL Crystal
Y2K Year 2000 [problem]YAC Yeast Artificial ChromosomeYAG Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet (Laser)YBCO Yttrium-Barium-Kupfer-Oxid YBa2Cu3O7 (HTSL)YES Year of Engineering ScuccessYL Young LadyYOTO International Year of the Ocean (1998)YSN Young Scientists Network (USA)
Z impedanceZAE Bayern Bayerisches Zentrum für Angewandte Energieforschung (Würzburg)ZALFZaPF Zusammenkunft aller Physik-FachschaftenZARMZAV Zentralstelle für Arbeitsvermittlung (Frankfurt/M)ZAVIR Zurechenbarkeit von Aktionen in virtuellen WeltenZBL Zentralbibliothek der Landesbauwissenschaften (Bonn)ZCMN zero-configuration secure mobility networkingZCMN zero-configuration secure mobility networkingZD Zero DefectsZDB Zeitschriftendatenbank


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The first recorded history of Kerala appears in the inscriptions of the Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka (269-232 b.c.).In these inscriptions, Ashoka refers to four independent kingdoms that lay to the south of his empire. These were the kingdoms of the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Keralaputrasand the Satiyaputras.Among them, the Keralaputras or the Cheras, as they were called, reigned over Malabar, Cochin and North Tra ...
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History & Culture
History & Culture
 The unique culture of Thrissur is represented in the traditional customs of the place. Thrissur is referred to as the cultural nerve center of the state of Kerala. Representing the rich cultural heritage and traditional legacy of the state of Kerala, Thrissur houses several literary and cultural societies that impart training in performing arts of the region. Thrissur celebrates numerous religious and ...
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How to Reach Thrissur in Kerala: How to Reach Thrissur by Air: The nearest airport to Thrissur is the Nedumbassery which is located 58kms away from Thrissur. Another important airport near Thrissur is Kochi Airport. How to Reach Thrissur by Rail: Thrissur Railway Station connects the city to the major cities of the country with its good network of railway lines. For a short while, during the reign of ...
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Geography of Thrissur reveals the topographic features of the region in south India. The city covers a total area of 3,032 square kilometers and is dominated by forest region. To know about Thrissur, it is also important to study the demography of the region which is also an important component in the study of the geographical features of the city. The city of Thrissur is situated in the geographical coordi ...
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Thrissur or Thrissivaperoor is the ‘cultural capital of Kerala’'. The city is a major financial and commercial hub. It is famous for the Thrissur Pooram festival and has a large number of well-known temples.Thrissur has traditionally been a centre of learning. With the decline of Buddhism and Jainism due to the growing supremacy of Brahminism during the revival of Hinduism, Thrissur became an ...
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